Varroa treatment

In the first week in December a varroa screen is placed under each brood box.
Each colony is then treated with 3.2% oxalic acid in a 1:1 sugar solution by the trickle method; 5ml of warm solution/ seam of bees.
A calculator pop-up can be used to work out the most economical amounts.
The screen is left in place for 5 days to check on the mite drop. The sample results can be viewed here. It will be noted that the acid is extremely affective; there being an immediate mite drop but very few mites are seen after the 5 day period.

The actual technique is pictured on the left. There is no need to smoke the bees. The top photo shows the set up. After the removal of the crown board, two roller clothes (made from tea towels glued to wood dowels) are used to cover the top of the brood box. Conveniently they can be rolled across the box so exposing the seams of bees one by one, or rolled up close together to seal off the bees. In the present set up the red cloth was used first to cover the whole brood box and then the seams of bees were treated starting from the back of the hive.

The lower photo shows the operation close to completion with only two more seams to go.

The warm oxalic acid solution is ready for use in ten 5 ml syringes (seen in the beaker). The application per seam of bees only takes about 10 seconds and the whole operation takes about two minutes. After the dousing with the oxalic acid the bees disappear down between the frames allowing the crown board to be replaced without any difficulty.

The weather on this day was quite mild T = 9 °C. Perhaps it might have been better to wait for a colder day when the bees were less active. The weather generally was very mild for this time of year; on some days there was was an audible hum coming from the apiary with the bees appearing to be very busy.

See more information on oxalic acid Varroa3.

A review of the use of oxalic acid for the control of varroosis can be read in this comprehensive article.
November, December, and January
Pollen

The south coast of Cork benefits in the winter season from the Gulf Stream. These months can be quite mild compared with other parts of Europe where the black bee is found. Being the opportunists that they are, the bees make use of any break in the weather to continue to collect pollen. At this time the gorse is beginning to flower and bees have been observed bringing in this pollen even on the winter solstice when the temperature was a very mild 14 °C.

The winter of 2013 was generally quite mild but on the morning of February 5th the apiary was covered in a few inches of snow; which meant the bees could take some time off from their foraging.
Winter clustering

During the winter months the ambient temperature drops. The colony adopts two mechanisms to ensure its survival.
1. When the temperature falls below 14 °C the bees start to cluster; the lower the temperature the tighter the cluster. The hairs on the bees' bodies interlock; the bees on the outside of the cluster thus providing an insulating layer.
2. The bees vibrate their flight muscles and so generate metabolic heat. So maintaining the temperature at the surface of the cluster above the minimum required.

Black bees do not need to be kept warm during the winter months by having the hive insulated. But rather kept cold to encourage them to cluster. What is important is that the hive be kept dry and well ventilated to prevent condensation on the inside of the brood box.

A varroa screen (corex) can be safely kept underneath the OMF and monitored on a weekly basis. The debris will show where the bees are clustering and where stores are being opened. The mite drop can also be monitored.
Seasons: Winter
Queen starts to lay

At the start of the new year if all is well, the queen at the center of the cluster will lay a few eggs. And so begins another annual cycle for the colony.
oxalic acid application
oxalic acid application
hives in winter
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